Whitening is the development direction of whitening products by inhibiting melanin synthesis. Arbutin, kojic acid, vitamin C and their derivatives have been widely used in whitening products, and have achieved certain results. However, the permeability of the above whitening active ingredients is low and the efficacy is not ideal. The formula division often enhances the effect by adding a large number of whitening agents, but it is still difficult to meet the needs of consumers. At the same time, with the increase of the dosage, there are many security risks. For example, studies have shown that long term use of kojic acid can cause contact dermatitis and erythema reaction and may induce breast cancer in women, which has caused great concern in Japan and Taiwan; arbutin is a whitening effect by releasing hydroquinone, and the latter is very toxic and has been banned in cosmetics. These ingredients also easily lead to cosmetic quality problems: bear fruit repair should be used in formula to cause discoloration of the product easily; the kojic acid will be chelated with many metal ions, especially iron ions to produce coloured compounds, slow oxidizing with air, and accelerating at high temperatures. Vitamin C and its derivatives are prone to oxidation or absorption difficulties.
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