Introduction for Catalase
Catalase(CAT), is a class of enzymes that are widely found in animals, plants and microorganisms. One of the key enzymes in the biological defense system established during biological evolution. Its biological function is to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in cells to prevent peroxidation. CAT and SOD, POD, ASP, together, are called enzyme protection systems.
Single-function CAT is found in almost all aerobic organisms. Despite the different sources, most single-function CATs are structurally highly similar, consisting of four subunits with the same polypeptide chain, each containing a heme prosthetic group as the active site, the prosthetic group The form is iron porphyrin, which contains 4 iron atoms in one molecule, and the relative molecular weight is generally 200-340 kDa. The heme active site of natural is in a highly spin Fe3+ state, which forms a complex under the 2-electron oxidation of hydrogen peroxide.
Bifunctional Catalase, widely found in animal and plant tissues. It is typically characterized by two different catalytic behaviors, and because it also contains a heme structure, it has the same catalytic function as a single-function, but its catalytic ability is one order of magnitude lower than that of a single-function CAT, but in living organisms, This difference is almost negligible. Bifunctional CAT has a broader substrate range for peroxidation in organic tissues and is sensitive to changes in temperature, pH, and H2O2 content.
Half a century ago Catalase began to be used in the food industry. Using it to decompose H2O2 to produce O2, CAT and hydrogen peroxide can be used together as a bulking agent in the baking food manufacturing process. But the broader application is the disinfection of milk and the like. Milk or liquid egg products are sterilized with hydrogen peroxide before milk storage or cheese making, and then residual hydrogen peroxide is removed with CAT. This process can be carried out at low temperatures to avoid protein denaturation and destruction of certain nutrients caused by high temperature processing.
The consumption of hydrogen peroxide in the environmental protection industry accounts for about 10% to 15% of the total consumption of hydrogen peroxide. Degradation of H2O2 contained in industrial wastewater by CAT instead of chemical reagents can avoid secondary pollution and also degrade aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds. Among them, horseradish catalase (HRP) has been used in many phenol-containing wastewater treatments due to its low price and slow deactivation.
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