Development for Ginkgo flavoniods
Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba L. is a relict plant that survived on the earth during the glacial period and is known as the “living fossil”. China is the birthplace of ginkgo, and its resources account for about 70% of the world's total. Song Jian made an incisive exposition on the development and utilization prospects of Ginkgo biloba at the 97 Ginkgo International Symposium held in 1997: "Ginkgo is a precious wealth that magical nature has given to human beings. This precious species has experienced 150 million years. After the vicissitudes of the vicissitudes of life, under the influence of modern science and technology, the glory that has accumulated for a long time is serving the health and civilization of mankind.
Ginkgo flavonoides isolated 58 flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba leaves, including 43 flavones and flavonols, including 8 cinnamoyl flavonol glycosides, 2 flavanones, 9 double flavonoids and 4 flavanols. Flavonoids and flavonols are mainly quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, myricetin, syringetin, luteolin and mono-, di- and tri-glycosides with aglycones as aglycones. Most of them are quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides.
Pharmacological studies have shown that Ginkgo biloba has anti-oxidation, free radicals, platelet activating factor, PAF, lower blood viscosity, improve microcirculation, improve memory, increase cerebral blood flow, protect brain microvascular smooth muscle cells, reduce brain damage, and treat gastric mucosa Various pharmacological effects such as protective effects, improvement of neuroplasticity, improvement of neurodegenerative diseases, and anti-radiation effects.
The amount of total flavonol glycosides = (the amount of quercetin + the amount of kaempferol + the amount of isorhamnetin) × 2.51, this value was first proposed by Sticher  in 1993 with quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin The conversion factor is used to calculate the amount of total flavonol glycoside, which is based on the average molecular weight (760) of the cinnamic flavonoid glycoside which is considered to be highly active in the ginkgo flavonoid glycoside and the relative molecular mass of the aglycon; The European Pharmacopoeia, the United States Pharmacopoeia and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, have generally used the conversion factor (quercetin 2.504, kaempferol 2.588, isorhamnetin 2.437) or the average conversion factor (2.51) to calculate the total amount of flavonol glycosides. These conversion factors are derived from the average relative molecular mass (756.7) of the flavonol glycosides.
Since May 2015, the “Ginkgo biloba incident” has been triggered by the company's unauthorized alteration of the production process of Ginkgo biloba extract.  The State Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) has carried out special treatment actions for Ginkgo biloba and its preparations in response to The current Ginkgo biloba extract standard cannot detect the “process change” from the extraction of dilute alcohol to 3% hydrochloric acid extraction and the Ginkgo biloba extract is currently on the market by adding part of rutin (quercetin-3-O-chewing gum). , ginseng leaf flavonoids main ingredient), quercetin and other flavonoid extracts, even completely blended with rutin to achieve 24% total flavonol glycosidic standard behavior. The added substances are mainly derived from the dried flower buds and mature fruits of the leguminous plant Sophora japonica L. The former is called glutinous rice, the latter is called the extract of the horn, or the rutin and quercetin extracted and purified from glutinous rice. To this end, CFDA issued two supplementary inspection methods No. 66 on June 4 and August 10, respectively, on Ginkgo biloba extract and its products (added free quercetin, kaempferol, isoflavone) (checks) and Announcement No. 142 (addition of saponin inspections) to regulate process changes and illegal additions that are widespread in the industry.
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