Lycopene (lycopene) is the main pigment of mature tomato, and it is an oxygen free carotenoid. Lycopene (Lycopene), also known as carotene, belongs to isoprene compounds and is one of carotenoids. Because lycopene is first isolated from tomatoes, it is called lycopene. In 1873, Hartsen first isolated this red crystal from Dioscorea zingiberensis TamuscommunisL.. In 1913, Schunk discovered the difference between this substance and carotene and named it lycopene for the first time. The pure product is needle like deep red crystal. In molecular structure, it has 11 conjugated double bonds and 2 non conjugated double bonds. It has the strongest antioxidant activity in carotenoids. Lycopene is more effective than other carotenoids and vitamin E, and its rate constant is 100 times as much as vitamin E, and is one of the strongest antioxidants found in nature so far.
1. Lycopene has antioxidation
Lycopene quenches singlet oxygen or catches free radicals by physical and chemical means. Lycopene can absorb the energy of different electron excited states, absorb light energy and transfer the energy of single wire oxygen to lycopene through the process of single wire state and single state energy transfer, producing the ground state oxygen molecule and the three heavy lycopene molecule. The three heavy lycopene is reacted with a series of rotatory and vibrational reactions with the solvent. There is a close relationship between the quenching ability of carotenoid and the number of conjugated double bonds contained in the molecule. There are 11 conjugated double bonds in the lycopene molecule, and a lycopene molecule can remove thousands of singlet oxygen, and the rate constant of quenching the single line oxygen is more than beta carrot. The hormone is 2 times higher.
Lycopene can also eliminate oxidation free radicals such as hydrogen peroxide and nitrous acid radicals by chemical reaction with other forms of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide and nitrite, which can cause lipid peroxidation to form a variety of products. These products are related to diseases such as human aging, cancer, autoimmune disease and anemia.
2. Lycopene plays a regulatory role in cell growth and metabolism.
Usually, there is a membrane protein channel between the intercellular spaces, with selective permeability, allowing second messengers and growth regulators to pass through the cells through cell space connection communication (GJIC) to transmit the growth and control signals within the cell population and regulate the normal proliferation and differentiation of cells.
3. Lycopene can regulate the metabolism of cholesterol
Lycopene is a low cholesterol agent, which inhibits the 3- hydroxyl -3- methylglutaric acid monoyl coenzyme A of macrophages, and it is a rate limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis. It was found that when lycopene was added to the medium of macrophage, the cholesterol synthesis decreased, and lycopene also increased the activity of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor of macrophage. The experiment also showed that supplementation of 60mg lycopene 3 days per day reduced LDL cholesterol concentration by 14%.
4, the health effect of Lycopene
The biological characteristics of lycopene have determined the functions of antioxidation, inhibition of mutation, reduction of nucleic acid damage, reduction of cardiovascular disease and prevention of cancer.
5, preventing and inhibiting the role of tumor
Lycopene has the effect of preventing and inhibiting tumor, one is its antioxidant effect, and the other is that lycopene can block the process of gene mutation of tissue cells under the effect of external mutagens, which is one of the important mechanisms of tumor formation.
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