Apigenin is a bioflavonoid compound (specifically a flavone) which is found in a wide variety of plants and herbs. It is very abundant in chamomile tea, and exerts anxiety-reducing effects when consumed in these high doses. At even higher doses, it may be sedative.
Apigenin is also a very potent anti-cancer compound. It beneficially protects against a wide variety of cancers with high selectivity for cancer cells as opposed to non-cancerous cells. It also has a very high safety threshold, and active (anti-cancer) doses can be gained through consuming a vegetable and fruit rich diet.
Apigenin itself is a low molecular weight (270.24) with a very high melting point (347.5).It is very insoluble in water by itself, but can become soluble in dilute potassium hydrochloride or DimethylSulfoxide (DMSO).The food borne apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, has increased water solubility via its carbohydrate containing bond. Chemicular apigenin is highly unstable, although the food bound sources are more stable in normal environments.
The chemical structure of the apigenin with the characteristics of the antioxidant structure shared by the flavonoids - three hydroxyl groups and the structural characteristics of the strong oxidizing agents, the phenolic hydroxyl group and the 4 '- hydroxyl group of -5,7
Antioxidation mechanism of apigenin
Free radical scavenging
There are many kinds of free radicals, among which the most harmful are superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxide and so on. Apigenin has a strong scavenging effect on superoxide anion and lipid peroxide.
Chelating metal ions
Metal iron and copper are the catalysts for the production of many free radicals, ferrous ions and copper ions can mediate lipid peroxidation. Iron deficiency can lead to the aggravation of lipid peroxidation damage. Copper is a traditional Chinese medicine component of superoxide enzyme. It is the active central structure of the enzyme, which can catalyze the superoxide anion to become oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Protect cells from damage caused by superoxide anion. Apigenin can chelate ferrous ions and accelerate the reduction of ferric ions, thereby eliminating free radicals.
Inhibition of DNA oxidative damage
Free radicals can cause oxidative damage to DNA, and apigenin has protective effects on this injury.
Inhibition of radiation injury
The radiation lines in nature can also produce a small amount of free radicals, irradiated by cells in vitro and irradiated by cells in vitro. The results show that the degree of lymphocyte damage has a certain dose effect relationship with the concentration of apigenin, and the higher the concentration, the lower the extent of the cell damage.
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