Hesperidin is a flavan-on glycoside found in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Citrus fruits, mainly oranges and tangerines, contain hesperidin .Its name is derived from the word "hesperidium", for fruit produced by citrus trees.Hesperidin is a bioflavonoid glycoside. Hesperidin was first isolated in 1828 by French chemist Lebreton from the white inner layer of citrus peels (mesocarp, albedo).
slightly soluble in methanol and hot glacial acetic acid, almost insoluble in acetone, benzene and chloroform, but soluble in dilute alkali and pyridine.
Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and other chemicals, cause oxidative stress. Oxidative damage causes disorders such as cancer and heart disease. Antioxidants help protect against oxidative stress.
Both hesperidin and hesperitin function as antioxidants. They both have radical scavenging activity. This means that they stop free radicals from damaging cells.Hesperidin had significant radical scavenging activity in red blood cells. It stopped hydrogen peroxide from damaging the cellular membranes of blood cells. It also protected against DNA damage.
Inflammatory mediators include iNOS and COX-2 and inflammatory cytokines.Hesperidin and its metabolites lower inflammation. In cellular models of inflammation, hesperidin administration suppressed iNOS protein levels and COX-2 enzyme levels.It also reduced inflammatory cytokine production.
Hesperidin may increase adiponectin, a protein hormone that helps control glucose and fat energy production. Increasing adiponectin helps reduce fat accumulation. This helps to prevent obesity.Hesperidin and p-synephrine (part of bitter orange extract) also increase the metabolic rate. The metabolic rate is the rate at which the body burns calories.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) provokes allergic reactions by releasing histamine and causing inflammation. In humans, administration of both hesperidin and hesperitin suppressed IgE’s effects. It inhibited histamine release and stopped Th2 cytokine secretion.
Additionally, hesperidin protects the skin from radiation. A compound called hesperidin methyl chalcone helped stop oxidative damage in skin cells. It reduced free radicals and reduced inflammatory cytokine production.Topical hesperetin may also be an effective skin whitening agent.
Hesperidin administration enhances osteoblast formation. Osteoblasts are cells that help with bone formation.
Hesperitin-7-glucuronide is the main circulating form of hesperidin. Its administration in rats helped increase bone cell formation.
Hesperidin may improve bone energy proudction. It prevents bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency.
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