A alkaloid of isoquinoline. It is also called berberine. It is found in many plants belonging to 10 genera and 4 families of Berberis.
Yellow needle like crystals can be precipitated from Berberine from ethyl ether. Berberine is a quaternary ammonium alkaloid, and its solubility in water is relatively small, for example, hydrochloride is 1: 500, sulfate is 1: 30. Berberine crystals precipitated from water or dilute ethanol contain 5.5 molecules of crystalline water. If they are crystallized from chloroform, acetone or benzene, they also have corresponding crystalline solvent molecules. Berberine can be obtained from three different forms of berberine, including quaternary ammonium type, aldehyde type and alcohol type by different alkali treatment. The quaternary ammonium type is the most stable. Berberine has antiseptic effect on Streptococcus hemolytic streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, gonococcus and Shigella Shigella, and enhances the phagocytosis of white blood cells. Berberine hydrochloride (berberine hydrochloride, commonly known as berberine), has been widely used in the treatment of gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery, etc., and has a certain effect on tuberculosis, scarlet fever, acute tonsillitis and respiratory infection.
light yellow crystalline powder
two edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition
mainly used for the treatment of enteritis, gastroenteritis, bacterial dysentery, ophthalmic conjunctivitis, suppurative otitis media and so on. It is also found that this product has the function of blocking alpha receptor and anti arrhythmia.
It has inhibitory effects on dysentery bacilli, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Salmonella typhi and Amoeba protozoa. It is mainly used in intestinal infection and bacillary dysentery. It was also found that the product had antiarrhythmic effects. Berberine has strong antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro and induces differentiation of B16 cells, and it has synergistic effect with cytarabine hydrochloride in vitro.
The antibacterial spectrum is broad, and it has antibacterial effects on various gram positive and negative bacteria in vitro, including hemolytic streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae. Meningococcal, Shigella dysenteribacilli, typhoid bacillus, diphtheria and so on have strong inhibitory effect, low concentration of bacteria, high concentration of sterilization. It also has certain inhibitory effects on influenza virus, amebic protozoa, leptospira and some skin fungi. Berberine enhanced the phagocytosis of leukocytes and reticuloendothelial system in vitro. Shigella, hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are easily resistant to this product. This product has no cross resistance with penicillin and streptomycin.
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