Inflammation is a complex reaction that occurs within local or systemic animal organs in response to multiple endogenous or exogenous injuries, which mainly result in redness, swelling, fever, pain of organs, and tissue damage. Berberine hydrochloride (C20H19CLNO4), also known as berberine, is a quaternary ammonium compound among Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and other plants, and is found in Berberidaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rutaceae, and other plants containing isoquinoline alkaloid. Moreover, related studies have demonstrated berberine hydrochloride has the effect of anti-inflammatory, lipid-lowering, hypoglycemic, immunoregulatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activity.
Berberine is yellow in color, and plants containing berberine often have been used as a dye, particularly for coloring wool. Chemically, berberine is classified as an isoquinoline alkaloid.
CAS Number: 633-65-8
Molecular form.: C₂₀H₁₈ClNO₄
Appearance: Pale Yellow to Yellow Solid
Melting Point: >160°C (dec.)
Mol. Weight: 371.84
Solubility: DMSO (Slightly), Methanol (Slightly)
Stability: No Data Available
Category: Aromatics, Heterocycles, Inhibitors, Pharmaceuticals, Intermediates & Fine Chemicals,
Applications: An isoqinoline alkaloid shown to have a chemopreventive property against colon tumor formation by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) which is abundantly expressed in colon cancer cells. Also inhibits Activator Protein 1 (AP-1), a transcription factor that plays a critical role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Treatment with berberine potentially results in the reduced accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs.
Antimicrobial action against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, helminthes, and Chlamydia
Antagonism against the effects of cholera and E coli heat-stable enterotoxin
Inhibition of intestinal ion secretion and of smooth muscle contraction
Reduction of inflammation
Stimulation of bile secretion and bilirubin discharge
The fundamental mechanism of action underlying berberine’s impact on human health is probably its action on the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To understand what berberine does, one must first understand AMPK. This enzyme acts as the central energy regulatory control switch regulating how energy is produced and used in the body. AMPK induces a cascade of events within cells that are all involved in maintaining energy homeostasis. The AMPK system senses and responds to changes in energy metabolism both on the cellular and the whole-body level. It is via AMPK that low energy status switches cellular metabolism from ATP-consuming anabolic pathways to ATP-producing catabolic pathways.
AMPK regulates an array of biological activities that normalize lipid, glucose, and energy imbalances. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) occurs when these AMPK-regulated pathways are turned off, triggering a syndrome that includes hyperglycemia, diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and energy imbalances.
AMPK helps coordinate the response to these stressors, shifting energy toward cellular repair, maintenance, or a return to homeostasis and improved likelihood of survival. The hormones leptin and adiponectin activate AMPK. In other words, activating AMPK can produce the same benefits as exercise, dieting, and weight loss—the lifestyle modifications considered beneficial for a range of maladies.
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